CTE For Real

VII. College and Career Readiness

Florida Eight Areas of Focus
  FL#1–Program Design
FL#2–Curriculum and Instruction
  FL#3–Professional Development
  FL#4–Student Support
  FL#5–Assessment
  FL#6–Partnerships
  FL#7–Marketing
  FL#8–Accountability

OVAE 10 Component Framework
  OVAE#1–Legislation and Policies
  OVAE#2–Partnerships
  OVAE#3–Professional Development
  OVAE#4–Accountability and Evaluation Systems
OVAE#5–College and Career Readiness Standards
  OVAE#6–Course Sequences
  OVAE#7–Credit Transfer Agreements
  OVAE#8–Guidance Counseling and Academic Advisement
  OVAE#9–Teaching and Learning Strategies
  OVAE#10–Technical Skills Assessments

The Need for 21st-Century Skills

The skills needed in the United States go beyond reading, mathematics, and science. All Americans, not just an elite few, need 21st-century skills that will increase their marketability, employability, and readiness for citizenship. Educators must take a holistic view of 21st-century teaching and learning that combines a discrete focus on 21st-century student outcomes (a blending of specific skills, content knowledge, and expertise) with innovative support systems to help students master the multi-dimensional abilities required of them in the 21st century.

 

The key elements of 21st-century learning are represented in the graphic and descriptions beginning on the following page. The graphic shows both 21st-century skills student outcomes (represented by the arches of the rainbow) and 21st-century skills support systems (represented by the pools at the bottom).

 


Source: www.p21.org

 

The elements described below (represented by the rainbow above) are the skills, knowledge, and expertise students should master to succeed in work and life in the 21st century:

 

 


  Use Resource 7.1 to rate how well Adult Education currently addresses the need for 21st-century skills.

 

Why Is College and Career Readiness a Pressing Issue?

Americans are facing increasing competition for meaningful employment from candidates around the world as more people in more countries are becoming more highly educated. At the same time, employers' expectations for the levels of education and training needed for entry-level jobs have increased. Today's workers need to be better educated and prepared as the U.S. continues to move toward a knowledge/information-based economic model in our global economy.

 

The goal of adult education today should be to equip as many students as possible with the core knowledge, tools, strategies, and skills necessary for college and career success. Adult education is not an end-goal in itself, but rather a bridge to bright future.

 

In the past, there have been too many distinctions between college-bound and career-oriented studies. There should be pathways of equal status, where high-level academics and high-quality career/technical (CTE) studies are blended. Secondary and postsecondary institutions across the country are trying to create more choices and flexibility in their course offerings through a career pathways system in which each pathway has a rigorous academic foundation and authentic learning is drawn from a career field of particular interest to the student.

 

Embedded in these career pathway course sequences or programs of study (POS) should be a set of rigorous expectations designed to prepare students for college and careers.

 

What Is College and Career Readiness (CCR)?

   We will set a clear goal: Every student should graduate from high school ready for college and a career, regardless of their income, race, ethnic or language background, or disability status. President Barack Obama, A Blueprint for Reform: Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (March 2010)
College and career readiness (CCR) is the foundation for success in the after-school years. This foundation consists of broad-based knowledge and skills that all can put to good use regardless of their educational or career objectives. Loosely put, CCR means ensuring that all learners are prepared for college-level courses upon matriculation, and/or for jobs that earn family-sustaining wages. The skills should include whatever skills are required to succeed in credit-bearing courses at the postsecondary (especially community college) level, since all learners should be prepared for postsecondary education or training whether they pursue degrees or workforce training.

 

Does being college-ready require the same skills and knowledge as being career-ready? A majority of Fortune 1000 executives believe this to be the case. Two-thirds of executives (64 percent) agree that the skills and knowledge that students need to be ready for college are the same as the skills and knowledge needed to be ready for careers (MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Preparing Students for College and Careers, 2011).

 

Colleges and employers may ask applicants to demonstrate a range of abilities: mastery of specific content such as math, science, or English; higher-order cross-disciplinary skills (such as critical thinking, problem solving, or effective communication); or performance skills such as self-motivation or collaboration.

 

 

David Conley describes The Four Dimensions of College and Career Readiness as
  • Key Cognitive Strategies:
    • Problem formulation, research, interpretation, communication, precision, and accuracy

  • Key Content Knowledge:
    • Key foundational content and "big ideas" from core subjects

  • Academic Behaviors:
    • Self-management skills: time management, study skills, goal setting, self-awareness, and persistence

  • Contextual Skills and Awareness:
    • Admissions requirements, college types and missions, affording college, college culture, and relations with professors

 

 

There are differences of opinion about the importance of certain skills and knowledge for college and career readiness among educators, parents, students, and industry. The following table was taken from the Metlife Survey of the American Teacher, where the question was asked, "How important do you think each of the following is for a student to be ready for college and a career?"

 

 

  Use Resource 7.2 to survey your teachers/instructors on the importance of the skill sets for college and career readiness.

 

State Standards Are Not Uniform

Standards-based education reform began with the publication A Nation at Risk in 1983. Standards-based education calls for clear, measureable standards for all students. In standards-based education, each student is measured against a concrete standard rather than measuring how well the student performs compared to peers. The early focus was elementary and middle schools. Defining goals for high school has proved more challenging. Most students see the goal as college, but many policymakers at the state and district levels have been content with a more basic set of standards that leaves too many students short of college-ready. Educators have varied dramatically in how they see or prioritize the goals. Some educators do a superb job of preparing students for postsecondary opportunities. Others are focused inordinately on preparing students for tests, while others prefer not to be bothered by system-wide standards or goals and focus instead on their favorite topics and units (Making College and Career Readiness the Mission for High Schools: A Guide for State Policymakers, Achieve and the Education Trust, November 2008).

 

Each state has its own process for developing, adopting, and implementing standards. As a result, what students are expected to learn can vary widely from state to state.

 

Common Core State Standards Initiative

   Mission Statement
The Common Core State Standards provide a consistent, clear understanding of what students are expected to learn, so teachers and parents know what they need to do to help them. The standards are designed to be robust and relevant to the real world, reflecting the knowledge and skills that our young people need for success in college and careers. With American students fully prepared for the future, our communities will be best positioned to compete successfully in the global economy.
In the spring of 2009, the Common Core State Standards Initiative was launched under the auspices of the National Governors Association (NGA) and the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) to develop a common core of state K–12 English language arts and mathematics standards. To develop these standards, CCSSO and the NGA Center worked with representatives from participating states, a wide range of educators, content experts, researchers, national organizations, and community groups. The final standards reflect the invaluable feedback from the general public, teachers, parents, business leaders, states, and content area experts and are informed by the standards of other high-performing nations. The college- and career-readiness standards have been incorporated into the K–12 standards. The criteria used to develop the college- and career-readiness standards, as well as these K–12 standards, are:

 

 

To access the state card for your state: www.all4ed.org/publication_material/commonstandardsstatecards

 

Please note that the Common Core State Standards are not national standards. The federal government was NOT involved in the development of the standards. This has been a state-led and driven initiative from the beginning. States will voluntarily adopt the standards based on their timelines and contexts.

 

The Common Core State Standards provide a consistent, clear understanding of what students are expected to learn, so teachers and parents know what they need to do to help them. The standards are designed to be robust and relevant to the real world, reflecting the knowledge and skills that our young people need for success in college and careers. With American students fully prepared for the future, our communities will be best positioned to compete successfully in the global economy (http://www.corestandards.org/).

 

These standards define the knowledge and skills students should acquire during their K-12 education careers so that they will graduate high school able to succeed in entry-level, credit-bearing academic college courses and in workforce training programs. The standards:

 

 

Assignment: You might wish to view the video on the Unveiling of the Standards at http://www.corestandards.org/presentations.

 

College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards

The College and Career Readiness (CCR) Anchor Standards define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. The CCR and grade-specific standards in the Common Core are necessary complements. The CCR Anchor Standards provide broad standards while grade-specific standards in the Common Core provide specificity. Jointly they define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

 


Common Core Standards in Florida


Florida's Transitional Courses

   Today, the Florida State Board of Education, in a unanimous and unified vote, approved the adoption of the Common Core State Standards for English/Language Arts and Mathematics. This approval marks a vital next step on Florida's long-standing and successful education reform journey by strengthening our curriculum standards for these critical subjects and laying the groundwork for the comparison of our state's academic progress with our nation and the world. State Board of Education Chairman T. Willard Fair (http://www.floridastandards.org/
Standards/Common_Core_Standards.aspx
)
As a result of Senate Bill 1908, courses have been implemented in the high schools that incorporate the same competencies that the colleges have imbedded in their developmental education (also known as college prep) courses to prepare students for entry-level credit bearing postsecondary courses. These courses are targeted for 12th-graders whose placement scores are below the established cut score indicating that they are not "college-ready." The Florida Department of Education approved course numbers and descriptions for mathematics and English transitional courses. There was limited offering during the 2009–2010 school year and enrollment increased slightly during the 2010–2011 school year. The one-half credit elective transitional courses are:
  • Mathematics for College Success
  • Reading for College Success
  • Writing for College Success
Successful completion of these courses while in high school will exempt students from further placement testing/postsecondary remediation if they enroll in a community college within two years of completion. Successful completion requires a grade of "C" or better in the course and a passing score on the Florida College Basic Skills Exit Test.

 

Additional one-credit mathematics and English courses were developed to align with entry-level college credit bearing courses. The two additional courses are:
  • Mathematics for College Readiness
  • English IV: Florida College Prep
In May 2011, the Florida legislature passed House Bill 1255, which codified a requirement for all students who test as not prepared for college-level work on the FCAT in the 10th-grade, must take the appropriate college readiness courses. This language thus requires all Florida high schools to offer the five transitional courses for math and English (http://www.sreb.org/page/1517/college_and_career_readiness_in_florida.html).

 

Partnership for the Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC)

Florida is one of 26 states that make up the Partnership for the Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC). The primary goal of PARCC is to implement a common assessment that is aligned with the Common Core State Standards. PERT is a college-readiness test designed to help determine where a student should be placed when he enters college. It provides placement and diagnostic capabilities in math, reading, and writing and is aligned with the Florida Common Core College and Career Readiness Standards.

 

The PERT is the first of its kind to be customized and aligned with the Florida Postsecondary Readiness Competencies (PRC) developed by Florida faculty. The PRCs consist of a subset of the Common Core College and Career Readiness Standards, American Diploma Project Benchmarks, and Florida Basic Skills for exit from developmental education. The assessment is available to high school and college students and will be the primary placement assessment used by the Florida College System. This test will also allow high school staff to place students into the proper transitional courses in the senior year, possibly preventing students from taking development education courses in college.

 

The next step is to develop diagnostic tests aligned with statewide developmental education competencies established by Florida faculty to identify specific areas of weakness in reading, writing, and mathematics that will enable faculty to customize instruction. In the final phase of the project, developmental education courses will be restructured based on the developmental education competencies and each college will offer the same developmental education course sequences. This redesign will result in the guarantee of course transfer for students who transfer within the developmental education course sequence.

 

Promoting College and Career-Ready Standards in Adult Basic Education

The Promoting College and Career-Ready Standards project will assist ABE programs in preparing students for success in higher education and training programs. It will also assist efforts to raise awareness and understanding of the critical skills and knowledge that colleges, universities, and employers expect from incoming students and employees. To reach these goals, the project will:
  • Validate a set of college- and career-readiness (CCR) standards in English language arts/literacy and mathematics.

  • Align the selected CCR standards with the National Report System's Educational Functioning Levels (NRS EFLs) and outcome measures, to determine the extent to which the CCSS work with the ABE accountability system.

  • Assess and update the Adult Education Content Standards Warehouse (AECSW) website (20-13-2014) (Source: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Adult and Vocational education. For more information, visit http://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/sectech/factsheet/promoting-college-career.html.)

 

GED 21st Century Initiative

 

 

The GED 21st Century Initiative will transform the GED test into a comprehensive program that will prepare more adult learners for postsecondary education, training, and careers. The centerpiece of the Initiative is the new assessment system. The next-generation assessment is currently being developed and aligned with career- and college-ready content standards such as the Common Core State Standards. The new test will continue to be a measure of high school equivalency and its passing standard will continue to be informed by the performance of graduating high school seniors. In addition, however, the test will include enhanced score reporting which will provide test-takers with information on the strengths and development needs they have in each of four content areas: Literacy (reading and writing), Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies. The new test will also include an advanced performance level that will provide information to candidates, instructors, schools, and employers about a test-taker's readiness to succeed in careers and/or postsecondary studies. The new test will primarily be delivered on computer, as the content standards being measured require item types which cannot be administered in the traditional paper and pencil format. The new assessment system will also include additional assessments, the Readiness Test (the new version of the Official Practice Test) to be released in 2013, and a series of diagnostic tests, to be released in 2015. (Source: http://lincs.ed.gov/lincs/discussions/assessment/11gedinitiative_transcript)

 

 

To prepare for the unveiling of the new GED Assessment System educators should read the GED Assessment Guide for Educators at http://www.gedtestingservice.com/educators/assessment-guide-for-educators.

 

 

A GED test graduate must remain competitive with students who complete their high school credentials in a traditional manner. Evidence suggests that test-takers who demonstrate fluency with the skills measured in the new assessment will be better prepared for what they plan to do with their lives. A graduate will no longer hold just a high school equivalency credential, but a roadmap for life's success. It's a stepping-stone toward a college classroom or a better career and a family sustaining wage.

 

Common Career Technical Core (CCTC) Initiative

The Common Career Technical Core (CCTC) initiative is a state-led effort to ensure rigorous, high-quality career technical education (CTE) programs through a set of common standards built from industry-validated Career Cluster Knowledge and Skills statements that will include:
  • Standards for Career Ready Practice;

  • Career Cluster Anchor Standards, applicable to each of the 16 Career Clusters; and

  • Career Pathway Anchor Standards, linked to specific Career Pathways and industry benchmarked when possible.

 

Who Is Leading the CCTC Initiative?

The initiative is being coordinated by the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium (NASDCTEc), which represents the state and territory heads of secondary, postsecondary, and adult CTE across the nation. The state members of NASDCTEc are leading the development of the CCTC. Business and industry and members of the Career Readiness Partner Council (CRPC)—an organization of leading education and workforce organizations—will provide guidance and feedback during the development of the CCTC.

 

Why Do We Need the CCTC?

The goal of the CCTC is to better define career readiness for all students. Nearly 14 million students are enrolled in CTE—encompassing every state, with programs in nearly 1,300 public high schools and 1,700 two-year-colleges. A set of common standards will help to ensure that all students receive a high-quality, rigorous education in every state, and every program across the nation. Building a connection among states through common CTE standards will better support students in preparing for high-skill, high-wage, and high-demand occupations in the broad spectrum of existing and emerging career areas.

 

What Is the Process and Timeframe for the Development of the CCTC?

Subject matter experts from across the country in all sixteen career clusters, along with a writing team, began laying the foundation for the CCTC by revising the National Career Clusters Knowledge and Skill statements—a comprehensive collection of industry-validated expectations of what students should know and be able to do after completing instruction in career program areas. These statements reflect the expectations of postsecondary education and business and industry for entering into careers, and are used to guide curriculum development, assessment, and program planning. The National Career Clusters Knowledge and Skills statements will be used as the foundation for the development of the CCTC. The CCTC development will begin in the winter of 2012. The standards are expected to be released in June 2012.

 

Preparing Your Institution for CCR

Today the teaching of a specific discipline (math, language arts) is often considered the exclusive responsibility of a specific teacher/instructor (i.e., math teacher). However, the complex role of many disciplines in education makes it clear that they cannot be left entirely to a specific class or department. For example, learners should read and write frequently in all disciplines, mathematics knowledge is needed in all disciplines, science teaches and reinforces logical thinking, and social studies promotes greater awareness of civic responsibility.

 

 

Teams: Your institution/department may find it advantageous to develop discipline and/or cross-disciplinary teams to implement the common core standards. There is no one-size-fits-all when forming teams. It will depend on the course offerings in your school (both academic and CTE courses) and how much work is needed to implement the standards. You may want to form teams in English/language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, history, and CTE courses. If your department is large, you may want to have subgroups.

 

Team Template A


  Use Resource 7.3 as a template for putting together your team.

 

Team Template B


You may want to organize your teams in the same manner as the standards are organized. The core standards are divided into these sections:
  • English Language Arts 9–10

  • English Language Arts 11–12

  • Literacy in Science 9–10

  • Literacy in Science 11–12

  • Literacy in History/Social Studies 9–10

  • Literacy in History/Social Studies 11–12

  • Literacy in Technical Subjects 9–10

  • Literacy in Technical Subjects 11–12

  • HS Mathematics: Number and Quantity

  • HS Mathematics: Algebra

  • HS Mathematics: Functions

  • HS Mathematics: Modeling

  • HS Mathematics: Geometry

  • HS Mathematics: Statistics and Probability

  Resource 7.4 provides another template for putting together your team.

 

 


Crosswalk Standards

Your team will need to "crosswalk" the CCR and common core standards (also known as content mapping) with existing curricula. Crosswalking is basically comparing the content of what exists now with the new standards.

 

 


Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects

The following is a portrait of students who are college and career ready in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language:

 

They demonstrate independence: Students can, without significant scaffolding, comprehend and evaluate complex texts across a range of types and disciplines, and they can construct effective arguments and convey intricate or multifaceted information. Likewise, students are able independently to discern a speaker's key points, request clarification, and ask relevant questions. They build on others' ideas, articulate their own ideas, and confirm they have been understood. Without prompting, they demonstrate command of standard English and acquire and use a wide-ranging vocabulary. More broadly, they become self-directed learners, effectively seeking out and using resources, including teachers, peers, and print and digital reference materials.

 

They build strong content knowledge: Students establish a base of knowledge across a wide range of subject matter by engaging with works of quality and substance. They become proficient in new areas through research and study. They read purposefully and listen attentively to gain both general knowledge and discipline-specific expertise. They refine and share their knowledge through writing and speaking.

 

They respond to the varying demands of audience, task, purpose, and discipline: Students adapt their communication in relation to audience, task, purpose, and discipline. They set and adjust purpose for reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language use as warranted by the task. They appreciate nuances, such as how the composition of an audience should affect tone when speaking and how the connotations of words affect meaning. They also know that different disciplines call for different types of evidence (e.g., documentary evidence in history, experimental evidence in science).

 

They comprehend as well as critique: Students are engaged and open-minded—but discerning—readers and listeners. They work diligently to understand precisely what an author or speaker is saying, but they also question an author's or speaker's assumptions and premises and assess the veracity of claims and the soundness of reasoning.

 

They value evidence: Students cite specific evidence when offering an oral or written interpretation of a text. They use relevant evidence when supporting their own points in writing and speaking, making their reasoning clear to the reader or listener, and they constructively evaluate others' use of evidence.

 

They use technology and digital media strategically and capably: Students employ technology thoughtfully to enhance their reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language use. They tailor their searches online to acquire useful information efficiently, and they integrate what they learn using technology with what they learn offline. They are familiar with the strengths and limitations of various technological tools and media and can select and use those best suited to their communication goals.

 

They come to understand other perspectives and cultures: Students appreciate that the twenty-first-century classroom and workplace are settings in which people representing widely divergent cultures and diverse experiences and perspectives must learn and work together. Students actively seek to understand other perspectives and cultures through reading and listening, and they are able to communicate effectively with people of varied backgrounds. They evaluate other points of view critically and constructively. Through reading great classic and contemporary works of literature representative of a variety of periods, cultures, and worldviews, students can vicariously inhabit worlds and have experiences much different than their own.

 

  Use Resource 7.5 to develop a portrait of your English language arts students.

 

College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading

Grade-specific standards define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students should be able to demonstrate.

 

 

Reading: Literature » Grade 9–10

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity. Please review the Reading Standards for Literature 9-10 at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/english-language-arts-standards/reading-literature-6-12/grade-9-10/.

 

Reading: Literature » Grade 11–12

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity. Please review the Reading Standards for Literature 11-12 at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/english-language-arts-standards/reading-literature-6-12/grade-11-12/#rl-11-12-1.

 

Reading: Informational Text » Grade 9–10

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity. Please review the Reading: Informational Text Grade 9-10 at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/english-language-arts-standards/reading-literature-6-12/grade-9-10/.

 

Reading: Informational Text » Grade 11–12

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity. Please review the Reading: Informational Text Grade 11–12 at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/english-language-arts-standards/reading-informational-text-6-12/grade-11-12/.

 


College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Writing

The grades 9–12 standards define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

 

 

Writing » Grade 9–10

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity. Please review the Writing » Grade 9–10 at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/english-language-arts-standards/writing-6-12/grade-9-10/.

 

Writing » Grade 11–12

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity. Please review the Writing » Grade 11–12 at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/english-language-arts-standards/writing-6-12/grade-11-12/.

 

Speaking and Listening » Grade 9–10

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity. Please review the Speaking and Listening » Grade 9–10 at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/english-language-arts-standards/speaking-and-listening-6-12/grade-9-10/.

 

Speaking and Listening » Grade 11–12

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity. Please review the Speaking and Listening » Grade 11–12 at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/english-language-arts-standards/speaking-and-listening-6-12/grade-11-12/.

 

Language » Grade 9–10

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity. Please review the Language » Grade 9–10 at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/english-language-arts-standards/language/grade-9-10/.

 

Language » Grade 11–12

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity. Please review the Language » Grade 11–12 at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/english-language-arts-standards/language/grade-11-12/.

 


Reading and Writing in History/Social Studies

The following is a portrait of students who are college and career ready in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language:

 

They demonstrate independence: Students can, without significant scaffolding, comprehend and evaluate complex texts across a range of types and disciplines, and they can construct effective arguments and convey intricate or multifaceted information. Likewise, students are able independently to discern a speaker's key points, request clarification, and ask relevant questions. They build on others' ideas, articulate their own ideas, and confirm that they have been understood. Without prompting, they demonstrate command of standard English and acquire and use a wide-ranging vocabulary. More broadly, they become self-directed learners, effectively seeking out and using resources to assist them, including teachers, peers, and print and digital reference materials.

 

They build strong content knowledge: Students establish a base of knowledge across a wide range of subject matter by engaging with works of quality and substance. They become proficient in new areas through research and study. They read purposefully and listen attentively to gain both general knowledge and discipline-specific expertise. They refine and share their knowledge through writing and speaking.

 

They respond to the varying demands of audience, task, purpose, and discipline: Students adapt their communication in relation to audience, task, purpose, and discipline. They set and adjust purpose for reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language use as warranted by the task. They appreciate nuances, such as how the composition of an audience should affect tone when speaking and how the connotations of words affect meaning. They also know that different disciplines call for different types of evidence (e.g., documentary evidence in history, experimental evidence in science).

 

They comprehend as well as critique: Students are engaged and open-minded—but discerning—readers and listeners. They work diligently to understand precisely what an author or speaker is saying, but they also question an author's or speaker's assumptions and premises and assess the veracity of claims and the soundness of reasoning.

 

They value evidence: Students cite specific evidence when offering an oral or written interpretation of a text. They use relevant evidence when supporting their own points in writing and speaking, making their reasoning clear to the reader or listener, and they constructively evaluate others' use of evidence.

 

They use technology and digital media strategically and capably: Students employ technology thoughtfully to enhance their reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language use. They tailor their searches online to acquire useful information efficiently, and they integrate what they learn using technology with what they learn offline. They are familiar with the strengths and limitations of various technological tools and media and can select and use those best suited to their communication goals.

 

They come to understand other perspectives and cultures: Students appreciate that the twenty-first-century classroom and workplace are settings in which people from often widely divergent cultures and who represent diverse experiences and perspectives must learn and work together. Students actively seek to understand other perspectives and cultures through reading and listening, and they are able to communicate effectively with people of varied backgrounds. They evaluate other points of view critically and constructively. Through reading great classic and contemporary works of literature representative of a variety of periods, cultures, and worldviews, students can vicariously inhabit worlds and have experiences much different than their own.

 

  Use Resource 7.6 to develop a portrait of your history/social studies students.

 


College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading

The grade-specific standards define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

 

 

Literacy in History/Social Studies » Grades 9–10

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity. Please review the English Language Arts Standards » History/Social Studies » Grades 9–10 at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/english-language-arts-standards/history-social-studies/grades-9-10/.

 

Literacy in History/Social Studies » Grades 11–12

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity. Please review the English Language Arts Standards » History/Social Studies » Grades 11–12 at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/english-language-arts-standards/history-social-studies/grades-11-12/.

 

Writing in Science and Technical Subjects

The grades 9–12 standards define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

 

 

Writing in History/Social Studies Subjects » Grades 9–10

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity. Please review the standards for Writing in History/Social Studies Subjects » Grades 9–10 at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/english-language-arts-standards/writing-hst/grades-9-10/.

 

Writing in History/Social Studies » Grades 11–12

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity. Please review the standards for Writing in History/Social Studies » Grades 11–12 at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/english-language-arts-standards/writing-hst/grades-11-12/.

 

Reading and Writing in Science and Technical Subjects

The following is a portrait of students who are college and career ready in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language:

 

They demonstrate independence: Students can, without significant scaffolding, comprehend and evaluate complex texts across a range of types and disciplines, and they can construct effective arguments and convey intricate or multifaceted information. Likewise, students are able independently to discern a speaker's key points, request clarification, and ask relevant questions. They build on others' ideas, articulate their own ideas, and confirm that they have been understood. Without prompting, they demonstrate command of standard English and acquire and use a wide-ranging vocabulary. More broadly, they become self-directed learners, effectively seeking out and using resources to assist them, including teachers, peers, and print and digital reference materials.

 

They build strong content knowledge: Students establish a base of knowledge across a wide range of subject matter by engaging with works of quality and substance. They become proficient in new areas through research and study. They read purposefully and listen attentively to gain both general knowledge and discipline-specific expertise. They refine and share their knowledge through writing and speaking.

 

They respond to the varying demands of audience, task, purpose, and discipline: Students adapt their communication in relation to audience, task, purpose, and discipline. They set and adjust purpose for reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language use as warranted by the task. They appreciate nuances, such as how the composition of an audience should affect tone when speaking and how the connotations of words affect meaning. They also know that different disciplines call for different types of evidence (e.g., documentary evidence in history, experimental evidence in science).

 

They comprehend as well as critique: Students are engaged and open-minded—but discerning—readers and listeners. They work diligently to understand precisely what an author or speaker is saying, but they also question an author's or speaker's assumptions and premises and assess the veracity of claims and the soundness of reasoning.

 

They value evidence: Students cite specific evidence when offering an oral or written interpretation of a text. They use relevant evidence when supporting their own points in writing and speaking, making their reasoning clear to the reader or listener, and they constructively evaluate others' use of evidence.

 

They use technology and digital media strategically and capably: Students employ technology thoughtfully to enhance their reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language use. They tailor their searches online to acquire useful information efficiently, and they integrate what they learn using technology with what they learn offline. They are familiar with the strengths and limitations of various technological tools and media and can select and use those best suited to their communication goals.

 

They come to understand other perspectives and cultures: Students appreciate that the twenty-first-century classroom and workplace are settings in which people from often widely divergent cultures and who represent diverse experiences and perspectives must learn and work together. Students actively seek to understand other perspectives and cultures through reading and listening, and they are able to communicate effectively with people of varied backgrounds. They evaluate other points of view critically and constructively. Through reading great classic and contemporary works of literature representative of a variety of periods, cultures, and worldviews, students can vicariously inhabit worlds and have experiences much different than their own.

 

  Use Resource 7.7 to develop a portrait of your science/technical students.

 


College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading

The grade-specific standards define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

 

 

Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects » Grades 9–10

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity. Please review the standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects » Grades 9–10 at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/english-language-arts-standards/science-technical/grades-9-10/.

 

Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects » Grades 11–12

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity. Please review the standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects » Grades 11–12 at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/english-language-arts-standards/science-technical/grades-11-12/.

 


Writing in Science and Technical Subjects

The grades 9–12 standards define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

 

 

Writing in Science and Technical Subjects » Grades 9–10

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity. Please review the standards for Writing in Science and Technical Subjects » Grades 9–10 at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/english-language-arts-standards/writing-hst/grades-9-10/.

 

Writing in Science and Technical Subjects » Grades 11–12

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity. Please review the standards for Writing in Science and Technical Subjects » Grades 11–12 at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/english-language-arts-standards/writing-hst/grades-11-12/.

 


Standards for Mathematical Practice

Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Mathematically proficient students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals. They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt. They consider analogous problems, and try special cases and simpler forms of the original problem in order to gain insight into its solution. They monitor and evaluate their progress and change course if necessary. Older students might, depending on the context of the problem, transform algebraic expressions or change the viewing window on their graphing calculator to get the information they need. Mathematically proficient students can explain correspondences between equations, verbal descriptions, tables, and graphs or draw diagrams of important features and relationships, graph data, and search for regularity or trends. Younger students might rely on using concrete objects or pictures to help conceptualize and solve a problem. Mathematically proficient students check their answers to problems using a different method, and they continually ask themselves, "Does this make sense?" They can understand the approaches of others to solving complex problems and identify correspondences between different approaches.

 

Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Mathematically proficient students make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations. They bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the ability to decontextualize—to abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents—and the ability to contextualize, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects.

 

Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to the arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Mathematically proficient students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments, distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and—if there is a flaw in an argument—explain what it is. Elementary students can construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. Such arguments can make sense and be correct, even though they are not generalized or made formal until later grades. Later, students learn to determine domains to which an argument applies. Students at all grades can listen or read the arguments of others, decide whether they make sense, and ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments.

 

Model with mathematics. Mathematically proficient students can apply the mathematics they know to solve problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. In early grades, this might be as simple as writing an addition equation to describe a situation. In middle grades, a student might apply proportional reasoning to plan a school event or analyze a problem in the community. By high school, a student might use geometry to solve a design problem or use a function to describe how one quantity of interest depends on another. Mathematically proficient students who can apply what they know are comfortable making assumptions and approximations to simplify a complicated situation, realizing that these may need revision later. They are able to identify important quantities in a practical situation and map their relationships using such tools as diagrams, two-way tables, graphs, flowcharts and formulas. They can analyze those relationships mathematically to draw conclusions. They routinely interpret their mathematical results in the context of the situation and reflect on whether the results make sense, possibly improving the model if it has not served its purpose.

 

Use appropriate tools strategically. Mathematically proficient students consider the available tools when solving a mathematical problem. These tools might include pencil and paper, concrete models, a ruler, a protractor, a calculator, a spreadsheet, a computer algebra system, a statistical package, or dynamic geometry software. Proficient students are sufficiently familiar with tools appropriate for their grade or course to make sound decisions about when each of these tools might be helpful, recognizing both the insight to be gained and their limitations. For example, mathematically proficient high school students analyze graphs of functions and solutions generated using a graphing calculator. They detect possible errors by strategically using estimation and other mathematical knowledge. When making mathematical models, they know that technology can enable them to visualize the results of varying assumptions, explore consequences, and compare predictions with data. Mathematically proficient students at various grade levels are able to identify relevant external mathematical resources, such as digital content located on a website, and use them to pose or solve problems. They are able to use technological tools to explore and deepen their understanding of concepts.

 

Attend to precision. Mathematically proficient students try to communicate precisely to others. They try to use clear definitions in discussion with others and in their own reasoning. They state the meaning of the symbols they choose, including using the equal sign consistently and appropriately. They are careful about specifying units of measure, and labeling axes to clarify the correspondence with quantities in a problem. They calculate accurately and efficiently express numerical answers with a degree of precision appropriate for the problem context. In the elementary grades, students give carefully formulated explanations to each other. By the time they reach high school they have learned to examine claims and make explicit use of definitions.

 

Look for and make use of structure. Mathematically proficient students look closely to discern a pattern or structure. Young students, for example, might notice that three and seven more is the same amount as seven and three more, or they may sort a collection of shapes according to how many sides the shapes have. Later, students will see 7 × 8 equals the well remembered 7 × 5 + 7 × 3, in preparation for learning about the distributive property. In the expression x2 + 9x + 14, older students can see the 14 as 2 × 7 and the 9 as 2 + 7. They recognize the significance of an existing line in a geometric figure and can use the strategy of drawing an auxiliary line for solving problems. They also can step back for an overview and shift perspective. They can see complicated things, such as some algebraic expressions, as single objects or as being composed of several objects. For example, they can see 5 – 3(x – y)2 as 5 minus a positive number times a square and use that to realize that its value cannot be more than 5 for any real numbers x and y.

 

Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Mathematically proficient students notice if calculations are repeated, and look both for general methods and for shortcuts. Upper elementary students might notice when dividing 25 by 11 that they are repeating the same calculations over and over again, and conclude they have a repeating decimal. By paying attention to the calculation of slope as they repeatedly check whether points are on the line through (1, 2) with slope 3, middle school students might abstract the equation (y – 2)/(x – 1) = 3. Noticing the regularity in the way terms cancel when expanding (x – 1)(x + 1), (x – 1)(x2 + x + 1), and (x – 1)(x3 + x2 + x + 1) might lead them to the general formula for the sum of a geometric series. As they work to solve a problem, mathematically proficient students maintain oversight of the process, while attending to the details. They continually evaluate the reasonableness of their intermediate results.

 

  Use Resource 7.8 to develop a portrait of your mathematics students.

 


High School: Number and Quantity

Please review the Mathematics standards at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/mathematics/hs-number-and-quantity/introduction/.

 

 


High School: Algebra

Review High School Algebra standards at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/mathematics/high-school-algebra/introduction/.

 

 


High School: Functions

Please review the Mathematics Functions standards at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/mathematics/high-school-functions/introduction/.

 

 


High School: Modeling

Please review the mathematic standards for Modeling at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/mathematics/high-school-modeling/introduction/.

 

Modeling links classroom mathematics and statistics to everyday life, work, and decision-making. Modeling is the process of choosing and using appropriate mathematics and statistics to analyze empirical situations, to understand them better, and to improve decisions. Quantities and their relationships in physical, economic, public policy, social, and everyday situations can be modeled using mathematical and statistical methods. When making mathematical models, technology is valuable for varying assumptions, exploring consequences, and comparing predictions with data.

 

 

The basic modeling cycle is summarized in the diagram. It involves (1) identifying variables in the situation and selecting those that represent essential features, (2) formulating a model by creating and selecting geometric, graphical, tabular, algebraic, or statistical representations that describe relationships between the variables, (3) analyzing and performing operations on these relationships to draw conclusions, (4) interpreting the results of the mathematics in terms of the original situation, (5) validating the conclusions by comparing them with the situation, and then either improving the model or, if it is acceptable, (6) reporting on the conclusions and the reasoning behind them.

 

Modeling Standards: Modeling is best interpreted not as a collection of isolated topics but rather in relation to other standards. Making mathematical models is a Standard for Mathematical Practice, and specific modeling standards appear throughout the high school standards indicated by a star symbol.

 


High School: Geometry

Please review the High School Mathematics: Geometry standards at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/mathematics/high-school-geometry/introduction/.

 

 


High School: Statistics and Probability

Please review the High School Mathematics Statistics Probability standards at http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/mathematics/hs-statistics-and-probability/introduction/.

 

 


Appendix A: Designing High School Mathematics Courses Based on the Common Core Standards

The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for Mathematics are organized by grade level in Grades K-8. At the high school level, the standards are organized by conceptual category (number and quantity, algebra, functions, geometry modeling and probability and statistics), showing the body of knowledge students should learn in each category to be college and career ready. As states consider how to implement the high school standards, an important consideration is how the high school CCSS might be organized into courses that provide a strong foundation for postsecondary success. To address this need, Achieve (in partnership with the Common Core writing team) has convened a group of experts to develop Model Course Pathways in Mathematics based on the Common Core State Standards.

 

Please read Appendix A for more information on how your district might design the mathematic courses. http://www.corestandards.org/assets/CCSSI_Mathematics_Appendix_A.pdf